Special conference issue: GLOBAL CHANGE 1990, Moscow 1988
Global Change, Kotlyakov, V. M.; Annenkov, V. V. 83
Global Change: Some Concepts and Problems of Geographical Research, Mather, J. R., Sdasyuk, G. V. 85
The "Earth Transformed" Program, Meyer, W. B.; Turner 11, B. L. 95
Problems and Approaches in Historical Geography of Global Environmental Change, Annenkov, V. V. 101
Experiences and Perspective in Compiling Long-Term Remote Sensing Data Sets on Landscapes and Biospheric Processes, Goward, S. N. 107
Change in the Anthropogenic Geochemical Impact on the Biosphere, Glazovsky, N. F. 115
Evidence of Recent Changes in Global Snow and Ice Cover, Barry, R. G. 121
Historical Changes of the Regional and Global Hydrological Cycles, Klige, R. K. 129
Some Long-term and Short-term Geographical Tasks in the "Global Change" Programme, Drozdov, A. V.; Kotlyakov, V. M. 137
The Human Ecology of Global Change: Unresolved Questions, Clark, W. C. 143
New Global Environment Programmes and Sustainable Development - A Geographical Perspective, Manshard, W. 151
Geo-/Object-Coding for Local-Change Assessment -
Planning, Execution, Accounting, and Research Demand Repeatability and Validity of Geotope/Biotope Information
Benking, Heiner Dipl.-Ing.; Schmidt v. Braun, Heiko, Dr. TOPOGRAMM GmbH, Weilheim, FR Germany
Missing availability of reliable and specific landscape data may pose substantial restrictions to successful exploitation of remote sensing data and fast implementation of GIS (Geo-Information Systems). The possibilities to document conditions with high spacial* resolution at a given time and to review changing aspects by different disciplines represent opportunities for complex environmental programs.
The article covers: geodata acquisition and processing, research, execution, and ergonomica/cognitive aspects. Application in impenetrable terrain for research, landuse. and engineering requirements proved the feasibility especially in areas with high demand for timely, accurate, and comprehensive surveys.
Airborne close-range sensing was developed to survey localities and regions. It is no competition to global-change monitoring and large area mapping programs possible with remote sensing, Substituting only the bulk of fieldwork, leaving time for in-depth review in the field or in the office. the system provides a possibility to restudy points of interest.
Exploitation of advanced metric cameras. specialized airborne platforms, and spatial overlay, recognition. and discrimination techniques form the backbone of the TOPOGRAMM approach. Multi-sectoral, multi-temporal, multi-spectral survey and processing methods rely basically on enlarged image scales additional to conventional aero-photogammetrie and analytic plotting. Measurements and identification, not primarily interpretation. allow to establish high-fidelity and high resolution geo-frameworks. Focussing on micro- and mesoscales. no emphasis is given to highest geometric accuracy used for geodetic surveys. Drawing near to the object allows extraction of thematical and semantical information , dimensions, and phenomenology of objects hitherto only singularily available.
Geo-information processing requires coded information. Authoritative databases demand the appraisal of each and every input. Only original data with known background and location can be used freely for many thematic maps, scales, and applications. The lack of data of such high precision and quality poses severe restrictions to ecological and environmental applications.
The increasing availability of remote sensing data fills the needs only partially. Perfect for global change assessment and use in developing countries, acquisition of reliable and spacial data for local tasks is restricted.
For large and medium scales, where affordable, the overview of airborne imagery must be given preference.
Increased demand for geometric
resolution can be met with additional metric reconnaissance cameras forming
one key element of the system covered.
Alternative field mapping is hampered by poor performance and subjectivity of individual addressing and interpretation of landscape and object features. Estimates, generalized signatures, and the missing exact data obtained by ground check are severe limitations for geocoding requirements. This might be less relevant for medium and small scale topographic Tapping, but it seems not suitable for biosphere inventories, micro- and mesoscale research, and detection of local episodic change (Fig 1).
The possibility to combine with such a bottom-up and high accuracy data acquisition approach various information sources and to assume global and local viewpoints in tandem seems worth exploiting (Meentemeyer, Box 1987; di Castri, Hadley 1988).
* distinction is made between 'spacial' (three-dimensional) and 'spatial' (two-dimensional)
PLEASE NOTE that the full articel (page 167-173)
with a number of colour photos is avialable through KLUWERS ACADEMIC Publishers
or in your library. The author will scann and preapre the fulla rticle
as time permits. Important for the record is the often discussed and disputed
the author had to make in support by the editor in chief of GeoJournal
Dr. Wolf Tietze, to emphasize the differnce of flat
versus deep "frames
Regarding" Frames of Reference" please see also Proposing a Conceptual Superstructure - Work-Report of a Vision to explore issue-scapes like virtual landscapes
by making use of Surveyors' abilities and Views a keynote on behalf of Dr. noel Brown UNEP RONA summarizing outcomes and proposals after the Rio 1992 Earth Summit.