GTW      Gesellschaft für Terminologie und Wissenstransfer 
Association for Terminology and Knowledge Transfer 
Association pour la Terminologie et le Transfert des Connaissances 
TKE '99  
Terminology and Knowledge Engineering 

On the way to Multilingual Information Markets
5th International Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering,  Innsbruck (Austria)  23-27 August 1999

Heiner Benking, Freitag 17. August 1999

S8:                         Culture in the Multimedia Information

11.30 –  12.00        Portals, Switching Systems and Reference Schemas                                        

Heiner Benking
Consultant, Germany

Reflections about Multi-Media Repositories, Maps, Filters, Portals, Harmonization, and Switching System 

including the LANGUAGE AND COMPUTERS paper in Co-operation with Prof. Johnnes Heinrichs, Berlin 

1. Abstract
The objective is to provide an overview, review and outlook of  what is/was going on in multi-lingual, multi-cultural applications by not just focusing on memory, but reasoning and imagination and how to better facilitate a transfer (convertibility) of meaning between applications, languages, and cultures. Central topic is how to ”concert” aspects, perspectives, metaphors, and through embodiment support of translation in order to allow appraisal and bridges between ”incomparable” information (harmonization). Focus is on providing a place or ”topos” for ”topics” in  agreed upon matrices holding different kinds of realities  (material, virtual, ideal, simulated, augmented, blended, etc.) in order to discuss the context of concepts and support shared access and assimilation. Beside the central concern regarding metaphors and human cognitive potentials and learning, the paper reviews developments in the field of order systems, subject catalogues, and switching systems, and how this is of relevance to the debate of knowing and understanding the age of ”cyberculture”.

Knowledge Organization, Multi-Lingual/Cultural, Convertibility, Harmonization, R
epositories, Digital Culture, Humane Information Society

Bridging and Switching Representations in Order Systemss

Abstract: The objective is to provide an overview, review and outlook of what is/was going on in multi-lingual, multi-cultural applications by not just focusing on memory, but reasoning and imagination and how to better facilitate a transfer (convertibility) of meaning between applications, languages, and cultures. Central topic is how to “concert” aspects, perspectives, metaphors, and through embodiment support of translation in order to allow appraisal and bridges between “incomparable” information (harmonization). Focus is on providing a place or “topos” for “topics” in  agreed upon matrices holding different kinds of realities  (material, virtual, ideal, simulated, augmented, blended, etc.) in order to discuss the context of concepts and support shared access and assimilation. Beside the central concern regarding metaphors and human cognitive potentials and learning, the paper reviews developments in the field of order systems, subject catalogues, and switching systems, and how this is of relevance to the debate of knowing and understanding the age of “cyberculture”.

Knowledge Organization, Multi-Lingual/Cultural, Convertibility, Harmonization, Repositories, Digital Culture, Humane Information Society

Under the premise that there is a Human Right underlying the Freedom of Information Act, we have to look not only into the right to have “information at our fingertips” - but pragmatic and contextual information about this information. The moment we “attach” a meta-level, a higher or lower backround or “environment” of any data there is a chance to reflect, translate, and transform meaning between repositories.
As the chaotic growth of the world-wide-web and our metaphors inflates and confuse our “store of knowledge” in an unprecedented way, it seems necessary to review approaches to come to grips with what we know and don`t, and review our ways and modes of thinking, our approaches to access and assimilation of multi-lingual, multi-cultural and interdisciplinary and how we store data across times in archives. We have selected in 1989 the quote “Much is known - unfortunately in different heads” (Werner Kollath) for international meta-data harmonization studies and projects and feel this is an appropriate extra building block to help us review what has been happening in this field of “in-between” repositories which are either compatible (standardization) or comparable (harmonization) and discuss some of these schemas, matrixes, grids or chart for collecting, finding, comparing, merging and morphing data and conceptual insights in this only recently more rapidely evolving field. See “cultural diversity protection “issues (Judge 1988) and how to meerge and morphe insights building “interspaces” (Benking/Judge 1994).
As we consider the TKE workshop and environment an ideal place to discuss such matters in an academic, but moreso pragmatic way and and concert alternative actions, the purpose and intention of this paper is to provide some (biased) background which might nevertheless, even though hopefully controversally, help to introduce and gauge some building-blocks and learnings, trigger alternatives, and raise the level of awareness and concern for glocal (local and global), transdiciplinary and multi-cultural solutions. Last not least but foremost, the focus is on “augementing and sharing human intellect (co-creation towards joint understanind and action”, considering human mnemonic and creative participative potentials and make use of technology in ways we feel it would ”please the thinker and serve humankind at the same time” (Doppler) as the antidote to plain technology and opportunity driven developments.

There is a lineage of ”non consensus” and “fight for leverage and ownership” which is considered counterproductive for the humane domain of public goods. What we are concerned about is the support of knowledge infrastructures whihc can help to enhance, not hinder the free exchange and comparison of cultural heritage and infrastructure needed for understanding and orientation -, the need to know and compare “what something is about and good for”.
There is no “the only one” road or way  within and between natural and cultural domains. Some roads have been plannned and developped between subject calalogues, portals, and repositories in the past and need to be considered and incorporated. In order to include such diverse collections and objectives the papers sees as a requisite to switching the need to review the past and agree on alternative definition where we can layout and chart data collections and paradigms in common maps or frames of reference. Given this possibility of having at our “fingertips” maps filters, brokers, agents, and knowbots, ... we should remember the the old trinity for navigation andld exploration is “captain - chart - compass” and we shound therefore not forget that we need schemas and ways to get along jointly towards agreed upon and positive ends. Keeping in mind the need to go beyond the discussion of tools and implementation timeframes, towards societal considerations and coexistence - a humane sustainable society  - not just what an “information society” has in store.

Why Switching Systems?
Tremendous work has been invested and countless controversial meetings took place over the subject of subject catalogues, switching systems, and schemas. The matter is not trivial as our cultures, mental models, schools to thought, and “intelligences” vary widely. They are also subject to objectives and means at the specific time of endeavor. Data coded and stored in a certain way aquire the “reality”of “de-facto standards” and theryby often hinder the advent of new ways and means. This is not only due to the influence or “market share” of certain domain leaders, but the fact that facts in place have a tendency to prevail and reduce the chance for “newcommers”. (monopolism of conceptual domains). As all attemps to standardize through use (bottom-up) approaches have failed due to the influence and interest of domain “ownern” which were defending their mandats or or territory due to the lack or missing acceptance of overall purposes and perspectives, it is of high immediacy and importance to go “beyond the one model”, or the “fight over perspectives”, but investing some more thought on bridgebuilding and translation/transformation in the age of “magnetic portals” and misleading, even inherentyl dangerous one metaphors oversimplifications and overclaims.

Architectures of Switching Systems
The idea of universal knowledge can be understood as survey knowledge; the possibility to provide an outline/frame where all fields can have their place. If we review the “worlds” of Ptolemy, Leonardo, Leibniz, Goethe, von Bingen, ... then we realize that they had pretty much an idea about what was known in their times in their specific age, and at the same time where aware of knowledge and wisdom from “outside”. They were also “experts/researchers/inventors/artists in some fields - typically all men or women of the eyact and fine arts.
The argument is, that we need different kinds of knowledge and “common frames of reference” in order to navigate and switch beteen the different forms and representations.
Library science basic pupose is to bring together and help access and assimilate, bring to shared understanding and action. In regard to “architecture”, the idea to bring all knowledge, at least when it can be stored in books, to one place is appealing, but this “physical warehouse” representation is definitely history and we have to consider building “clearinghouses” in borderland - bridging physical, ideal, virtual, imaginary conceptual representation as an alterantive to resignation and isolation.
In the end of the 20th Century we became more and more aware that the idea of physical storage only in books and only at one place as a prerequisite to knowledge can not be considered seriously, but our scholary thinkin is still in this “mold”, leading us consequentely into the idea that all overview and orientation is lost eternally, and we are ultimately and irreversably heading towards chaos, an ireversible doomsday “Second Flood”.
We in this worksop want to go beyond this “everybody knows” “trap” by trying some alternatives to data- and metadata storage, testing and comparing alternative paradigms and see if we can find some common ground for concerting alternative paradigms (Kühlewind).

Alternative and Concerted Architectures/Paradigms
Much effort has been invested over the last 60 years to not only to build repositories but to bridge aspects and perspectives by considering, reflecting and “mapping” origin, purpose, focus, quality and context of entities. Be can not go into details here but recommend to follow the references in the papers listed in the references as “entry-points” by authors such as Dahlberg, Judge, Veltman, and the work of the author on meta-data, harmonization and knowledge architectures.
Dahlberg has proposed with the ICC one central building block of a possible “root-” or “meta-paradigm” which we want to build on and focus on for a moment. Her proposal shows how we can go beyond hierachical listings and knowledge trees/roots/rizomes by defining a coherent, easy to remember and therfore practical deep structured schema or matrix to see and explore the connections, using a “Systematifyer”. This grid allows to place “regions or fields of knowledge” in the true sense of the word, even when the subject is distributed over many domains - this we can consider a horizontal thread like in a carpet, a prerequistite to “bridge-building” or harmonization, helping us to realize that harmonization is not homogenization, but instead helping us to maintain diversity my defining space and place for topics, situations/locations”. Dahlberg proposes the first step by creating a “floor plan”, a 2-dimensional matrix, for the proposed “House of Horizons and Perspectives ” and it is important to note that her “master schema” co-exists with other grids, like Judges “Functional Classification” and other coherent layouts, which help to structure deeply, point at themes, and allow parall planes for other languages.
The necessary next step is to realize how these grids are connected in order to be able to bridge them, a step requiering to go into a third dimension, going spacial  by embodying- not only in the spatial abstract or semantic/analytical still limmitting way of representation, but to go deeper into sharable immersive, blended and augmented “realities” . We are insisting here on “Space” as a root metaphor, as it can contain many objects and their conceptual transformation into metaphors/strory telling. Such an embodied or “real” thinking helps to “matrialize” what we mean, make it solid, plasitc by giving it place, form and content wich can be “negotiated”  which can easily convey and translate meaning and beside making subjects more easily to grasp and grope/grok.

Organic nested Models
The debate of the unity of knowledge is as old as philosophy. Traditions and cultures have developped schemas or “wheels” to show how things belong together and that we have to have a picture of the whole to be able to feel as part of it. We have shown elsewhere  that one- or two-dimensional presentations are not enough to find shared understanding and get along in a complex modern and global society, and that our models do not suffice, that we are in the wrong “film” . So what we propose here is to do the next step by allowing to bridge deep space-scapes, navigating in silulated thematic spaces, like we do in physical space.
We can not focus in this article at the “evolution” of order systems , but would like to provide some references for further study and emphasize, that nature can  teach us how to “construct organic, three-dimensional models. These maps or models are not the territory of Nature (free after Bateson) but can help us at least to create some better “fidelity” of what we can understand with what we perceive. Through our physical, haptical, visual, and motorical experience we are use to “handle” and live in space, and so it is only natural that we propose here to use this common way of sharing, panning and zooming of “real space”, also for immersive, synthetic, conceptual spaces. In such virtual and abstract “realms” or “rooms” we can share in the same way positions, relations, neighborhoods, levels, aspects, horizons, and perspectives  as was shown in various fields of study or application during the last years (Benking 1990-1999). ********* Dahlbergs work on switching systems “projected into space”...! **********
Consciousness and cognition studies  lead us to use our concepts and schemas for the internal and external workplaces of the mind and it makes much sense to apply metaphors to bridge meaning across domains and scales, not stop by information, knowledge and memory, but use it as prerequisites for reasoning, imagination, and co-creation .

Portals need Switching Systems
The Information and Communication Age creates an unprecedented glut of data of dubious, often unwanted and dubious “noise”, which overloads our capacities, “dumbs us down” , can be seen as attractors we can not avoid (magnetic portals), and hides the information we actually want and need. But this natural tendency to form islands, spheres, or territories of influence or gravity, we can easily get accustomed to as it so nicely seems to serve our needs according to our “profile” or past interests or actions, has some negative side effects: It does not provide transparency, is ridgid and therefore hinders change and individual development.

It is not enough to create volumes of data without having an idea about the content, purpose, and how they fit in a broader scheme of things. The Article showed that there are concepts looking into the unity of knowledge and grids which can help not only to store, but also find, combine, and make use of entries, triggering ideas and helping to come to practical ends.
Mandatory seems to be to use and combine new and old forms of store and use information, and use the potential as the ideal “container” and “mining” or exploration concept. For applying this realization it seem necessary to review our metaphors, and take terms like grid or matrix for real instead of hiding behind words we do not use in an embodied or “solid” sense. By applying our ability to fly and dive in deep knowledge-scapes we might be able to outline and combine issues towards desireable ends. The alternative is to fall into agression or worse apathy, ignoring chaos, hiding or fighting for local or personal benefit. The idea to combine and bridge is possible, can help from new or different positions and angles, see with new eyes. Switching between repositories is a support function and tool which can helping us to overcome any single or isolated approach, helping us to make use of information stored in a multitude of specialized collections.

Alexander Christapher Pattern Language***
Baars  external workplace of the mind ******
Benking, WCGA CAMP 1985 continuous keynote:
Benking IBM Brussels UNIRAS ... und und und
Benking 1989  GeoJournal
Benking Access and Assimilation
Benking ISY -JPL AIP pasadenaand
Benking Bridges and a Maserplan ICSU CODATA Beijing UNEP-HEM
Benking, Grossmann  CODATA CHAMBERY
Benking ISSS Wholeness Seminar
Benking Terminology 60ies and FID
Benking, ISSS ISIS
Benking Nairobi und Turku
PAKM  and metadata IEEE
WOC  TORONTO Sharing an Extra Skin
Bachelard “reverberations” ** in rituals, metaphors,a nd meaning in evryday life
Baden Baden Culture of Peace
KLI  phylogenetic next step
Benking Paris and MADRID ! CUENCA
Benking, Internet FIESTA
Benking Draft Conference of WORLD CULTURES
PAKM and meta-data...
UN VISON TELEVISON and UNESCO CLUB OF BUDAPEST and and and with KIDS   transition to GLOBAL SOCIETY !!++***********************
IFSR Newsletter WRONG FILM !!
Benking: kid maps Ulm and elsewhere. bottom up indexing..!!!***
Benking WOC sharing an extra skin
Benking, H., Judge, A.J.N.: (1994) Design Considerations for Spatial Metaphors - reflections on the evolution of viewpoint generation and transportation systems, invited workshop on spacial (spatial) metaphors for Information Systems acm-ECHT Edinburgh
Benzon, William L., Hays, David G.:(1987) Metaphor; Recognition and Neural Process: Physiognomic and Propositional Representation, Focal and Residual Schemas, Metaphor Compounded, The AmericanJournal of Semiotics, Vol. 5, No.1, more see at:
Bourdieux ********
Budin, Gerhard: ******** Habil
Coates, E., Lloyd, G., Simandl, D. (Eds): (1979) The BSO Journal. The development rationale and use of the Broad System of Ordering. The Hague: FID 157p
Dahlberg, I.: (1964) Grundlagen Universaler Wissensordnung. Foundations of Universal Organization of Knowledge, München, Veralg Dokumention, K.G. SAUER, XVIII 366p
Dahlberg, I.: (1982) Information Coding Classification ****
Dahlberg, I.: (1995) The comatibility guidelines - A re-evaluation, In : Compatibility and Integration of Order Systems, TIP/ISKO Warsaw, 1995
Dahlberg, I.: (1996) Library Catalogues in the Internet: Switching Systems for Future Subject Access, In: Advances in Knowledge Organization, Vol. 5 (1996), p. 155-164, INDEKS Verlag, Frankfurt
Dahlberg, I: (1998???***) Lille ICC UDC marriage...************
Deleuze; Gilles
Dror Yehezkel, Benking, Heiner: (1995) Capacity to Govern Theses on the ocatian of introducing the Club of Rome Report at the UN Climate Summit Berlin 1995 http://********
European Union ACTS - USINACTS: (1998) (Eds) Chester J.P.: Towards a Human Inforamtion Society: People Issues in the Implementation of the EU Framework V Programme, Carelow Ireland: ISBN: 1 901267 03 2
Feibleman, J.K.: (1954) The integrative levels in nature. Brit.J.Philosophy on Science, May, Also in Kyle, B. (Eds): (1965) Focus on Information. London: Aslib p. 27-41
Galinski **************
Fullan, Michael: (1993) Change Forces, Falmer Press, London
Günther, Gotthart: *****
Hartmann Nicolei (3.1964) Der Aufbau der Realen Welt. Grundrisse einer allgemeinen Kategorienlehre, Berlin, De Gruyter.XX, 559p
Heinrichs, Johannes: (1986) Die Logik der Vernunftkritik, ****, Tübingen 1986
Heinrichs, Johannes: (1998) Transpersonale********
Heinrichs, Johannes: (1998) Heinrichs, Johannes: (1998) Entwurf systemischer Kulturtheorie- Handlung als Prinzip der Moderne; Kulturwissenschaften, Donau Universität Krems
Judge, A.J.N.: (1978/79) Representation; comprehension, and communication of sets, The role of numbers. Int. Class. 5/3, 126-133; 6/1, 16-25; 6/2, 92-103,
Judge, A.J.N.: (1988) Encyclopaedia of Conceptaul Insights from World`s Cultures, UIA, Brussels,
I also highly recommend:
Judge, A.J.N.: *************
Judge FID
Judge Tensegirty  3D Checks and balances
Judge Encyclopaedia of Cultural insights
Judge  World Problems and Human Potential
Keune, **** Benking harmoniaztion of Environmental Information
Kline  hierachy of constitution ******
Lorenz/Oeser  Weltbildapparat
Leevers, D. (1997): Inner Space - The Final Frontier
maragor maramuya.. ***********
Navikoff, A.B. (1945) The concept of integrative levels and biology, Science 102, 209-215Neisser
Plessner, Hellmuth: (1920) Arbeiten zur Urteilkraft bei Kant, (1923) Aesthesiologie des Geistes, (1928) Die Stufen des Organischen und der Mensch, Suhrkamp Frankfurt 1981, 455p
Rapaport, Anatol: (****) The Origins of Violence, World Peace Academy, Paragon, New York
Ranganathan, S.R. (1967) Hidden roots of classification. inform Stor.Retr. 3/4, P. 399-410
Schwartzkopf   given and not given...****
Stroeker, Elisabeth:
Siu  Volume 11
Siu Ralph, Benking ***************
Smuts J (****
SUMS *************
Taylor Holarchies....************
UNISIST report: convertibility versus campatibility*****
UMLS, Universal Medical Language System***********
UNEP-GEMS harmonization of   GREEP REPORT !
Veltman, ISKO
Veltman/Benking AVI and ISKO Berlin
Veltman und neues Buch
Vollmer, Gerhard: (1995) Auf der Suche nach der Ordnung - Beitraege zu einem naturalistischen Welt- und Menschenbild, S. Hirtzel, Stuttgart
Weiss, Paul
Wilson, Edward O.: (1978) on Human Nature, Harward University Press, Cambridge
Wilson, Edward O.: (1998) Consilience - The Unity of Knowledge, Little Brown and Company, London
zur Lippe, Robert (1995): Wahnsystem Realität ***********


          EEES            Environmental Experts of the Economic Summit (G7) with SRU
          ISKO            International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO)          
          UIA              Union of International Associations                                                                  
          infoterm       terminology research                                                        plus ISO/TC37
          FAW           Research Centre for Applied Knowledge Processing(FAW)            
          ISSS             International Society for the Systems Sciences                                              
          ISSS  . . . .  Wholeness Seminar                                             
          ISIS              Int'l Soc for Interdisciplinary Sciences
          SRU     Sachverständigenrat für Umweltfragen - Environmental Advisors
          UNEP          United Nations Environment Programme
          UNEP-HEM-office (closed)              Harmonization of Environmental Measurement Programme

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