ISGI 2005

International  Symposium on

Generalization of Information

 

Granularity, Topicality,

 

and

Generalization of Information

 

 

Reflections about maps and models, orienting generalizations and their possible pragmatic and ethical implications and challenges

 

See: http://benking.de/systems/codata/     -     http://www.codata-germany.org/ISGI_2005/ISGI_Order_Information.pdf

 

Heiner Benking, Open Forum & Tagore-Einstein-Council

 

 

 

Knowledge in Time and Space

The ultimate aim of science is to obtain knowledge,

description, and explanation of the whole,

in all the complex interrelations, in all the differences

 from time to time and place to place.

Hartshorne

 

 

 

Abstract. The outstanding or unique quality of geographers or topographers is their experience and professionalism in handling scales; scales including proportions and consequences connected to the issues between "commons" like: cultures, sectors, languages, and fields.

Generalization has to do with agreements on subjects and intentions, on scales, frames and legends, how information will not only be reduced, but brought to a higher level of organization in a repeatable and understandable way, keeping in mind the logical flow of data between scales. The discussion of the Potentials and Challenges connected to generalization form the main part of the paper. A Cognitive Panorama making up a model, an embodied generalization is presented.

One special concern of often requested "orienting generalizations" is how to not only bridge entities in physical or natural environments, but how this could be applied while using the "toolbox" of mapmakers, model-builders, and librarians, keeping track of repositories holding terminological and language information, including the exchange and translation between scales, natural, cultural, and sign information (according to C.S. Peirce: symbols, icons, and indexes).

Keywords. Generalization, reductionism, orientation, meta-data, inder-disciplinarity, coherence, knowledge organization, culture-navigation, pragmatism, holism, harmonization, general system theory, general model theory, sign theory, education, information society, knowledge.

 

 

"Somewhere between the specific that has no meaning and the general that has no content

there must be for each purpose and at each level of abstraction, an optimum degree of generality”.

        K. Boulding

 

 

1      Introduction                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

2      So what is Generalization ? - Are Maps and Models Generalizations ? - and is there a purpose and pragmatic concept behind maps and models?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

3      A nine-dimensional (9-D) Model for generalized knowledge-organization and orientation? -- Can a combination of embodied model of reference frames (scaffoldings) called "Cognitive Panorama"  (3 x 3D)  or  (3Space/Time) help to share "Commons" or a "Global Covenant"?                                                                                                                                                                                                                

4      Knowledge Organization, Meta-Data, Multi-Linguality and Generalization                                                                                                                                                                         

5      Summary and Outlook

 

        References in alpha-order - collection still in progress...

 

1   Introduction

Geo-sciences - in particular surveying and map- and model making - have a lot in store for not just aggregation and generalization of data, but to look into and bridge information along and across scales and combining various modes of representations (schemas[1] and sign systems). Let us just think about "truthing" and geo-statistics (kridging) which allows the calibration of data with a set of samples and then applying findings to other "areas", so not just the combination of different formats, of vector- and raster graphics with alphanumeric thematic information, but coded and non-coded data. [1].

So what is special about this bridging and combining "incompatible" or widely distant and seemingly "unrelated" information? The philosopher Günter Ropohl (1975) [2]. the concept and need for "T- Intelligence"[2], an ability to bring together specialization and generalization, or more widely understood: standardization and harmonization[3], an ability interaction along and across scales, outlining and lumping issues.

The challenge is seen in including other ways of representation, not just lists and trees (hierarchical structures) but multi-hierarchical spacial[4] orders, using the fullness, rightness and potential emptiness of space as potential and realm from shared broader orientation. Discussing challenges of Order and Orientation, the traditional Earth, Space, and Life Sciences[5] have much to offer for keeping our "Stores of Knowledge" in order and maintain good communication between other stores or repositories, nowadays called portals[6], and helping us creating and maintaining a feeling of place and topic, of context and coherence, an antidote to the ubiquitous postmodern apathy and loss of orientation and purpose.

The International Encyclopedia of Systems and Cybernetics (IESC) [5] will be consulted throughout this paper to check definitions and secure a stable basis for the proposed "constructions" or "scaffoldings" covered by paper. So for example in the IESC (3006) Semantics (pathological): "Heinz von Foerster points out what makes Information": "only understanding and ordering data in interrelations clustered in reference frames makes information".

We will in this paper focus on this understanding and shared, participatory aspects which are involved when negotiating and relating issues and give examples of such proposed alternative ordering in common frames[7], or maybe a "Global Covenant" [7]. It makes sense to structure and stratify in agreed-upon frames in order to distinguish and share various contexts, granularities, sectors and topics, and cultivate a dialog and decision culture [9] in order to listen to and explore details and differences. The IESC is a good example to see differences in definitions and be aware of the context of the terms - and signs) [4].

This leads us to Generalization (IESC 1414) which states that it is "the derivation of a more embracing law, principle, or method from a number of specific cases of some phenomena or situation", and that it "involves the discovery of some common characteristics, forms, or patterns present in the different situations considered. It consists of looking for homomorphisms, and if possible of isomorphic models, and constructing useful heuristics. However, as generalization is antinomic to more precise distinctions between the compared elements, it should be used carefully". The IESC in (Over-Generalization (1416) even alerts us that "excessive enthusiasm seems to breed short-sightedness, semantic muddles, wrong appreciation of situations and even twisted or intolerant behavior"[8].

Caution is needed when we are not alerting ourselves whether we want to reduce detail or complexity. It seems obvious that we can like panning and zooming, "replace" elements on a quantitative scale and find signatures for topological features, when we define an appropriate legend for it, but we are leaving out or mis-representing complex situations and interactions, and there is also the surprise of emergence, something showing up we can not draw from the "given"[9] (Schwarzkopf 1995) - directly observable and experienced in the meso-scale. In this way simplification or generalization can be counterproductive and dangerous, making us believe we know and can map, when we can not.

To outline such complex sytemic processes and phenomena we can consult in the IESC also something close to Generalization to help us show differences. Under Reductionism (2771) in the IESC we find the we need pluralistic descriptions with both causal and synchronistic aspects in order to not to fall into the traps of Reductionism, and the author would like to add: the traps of Generalization. So any focus just on the detail, or just on any single level is misleading. A systemic, organismic approach would be trandisciplinary and multi-modal, inviting transfer and translation between the scales, sectors, levels and schemas[10].

So, Generalization needs to be a sensibly applied, non-reversable process requiring careful observation of the signs and scales involved and how they are understood and ordered - we add here negotiated in the sense of jointly visiting elements, objects or issues at various levels, from different perspectives and in different modes, using different senses and sign systems.[11]

To address the challenges of "over" and "mis"-use of Generalization, this papers is therefore intended to base approaches and proposals for possible wider use on the long-standing experience in the geo- and natural sciences, using generalizations in conventional map- and model making to take a closer, pragmatic look at what is done when "generalizing" and how such pragmatical expertise might be helpful for checking and sharing "truth" or "fidelity", even taking a step further towards exploring and negotiating proportions and consequences, even to quote Mario Bunge in "it is not the function of geographers to only map the world, but to change it"[12].

Scale is more than size;
it is size with proportions and consequences.
When proportions are no longer in harmony,
or consequences are unanticipated,
we have problems of scale.
J.A. Buzacott et.al (1982) [14]

2   So what is Generalization ? - Are Maps and Models Generalizations ? - and is there a purpose and pragmatic concept behind maps and models?

We should start with asking whether the tradition of geo-cartographic generalization, and our human capabilities, our being "model-making animals" [15] can help us tackling new applications and needs.

As a start let us remember, that one intention of generalization is to work towards "bigger pictures" in order to not get lost in details, but instead find on another level what is common and what connects. It is simply "seeing the woods, not just the trees", taking a high stand or assuming a "birds-eye" trying to see the commons, or use the broad brush to make a first rough architectural design, instead of starting with the engineering blueprint first.

Definitely, as it is clear to the "geo-science people", this is an irreversible process, when you delete details in order to see "bigger schemes of things" it is impossible to go back to the original or "natural" detail, as details are lost - but on the other hand - through the synthesis and integration common laws and patterns can be found which might be able to construct with the newly formed model other "to-scale" designs with probably great variety and alternative practical uses.

What we are aiming at here is not to put emphasis on one scale or one process only -like scaling up or down, but instead to see the merit and benefit of alternative, co-existent representations at various scale levels  -and help the conception of co-existence and translations and transpositions across scales. See for example here the scale-problem of political sciences which treat each scale as far as possible separately and only aggregate data, but scaling up-and down only became common place only in the last 20 years with the advent of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), reaching such interactive online functionalities at the desktop only recently with new features and scrolling or panning and zooming across scales like Google™, Google Mapsä, and Google Earthä or Microsoft Virtual Earthä, or Hyperhistoryä[13], where a Synchronoptical Atlas of 5000 years World History from Arno Peters (1964) [16] can be now (in-part) online explored. In the original atlas from 1954 annotations followed even with the finger (index) in parallel layers or cultural bands of each 100 years on the double-page, layers for the Australien, Asian, Arabian, European, African, American cultures and civilizations. The new reduced only-version Hyperhistory™ we have a virtual user-space scale. This is similar to what we know from anatomic atlases where we can explore bodies in 3D, different is just the move from meso-scale to a 2D synchronoptic macro-scale. There is no depth to navigate, only links you can follow to an index or reference section, see gazetters[14].

We could explore this further in the field of library projects [17] , but at this point we need to manage the treshold to 3-D model space. Geographic Maps are still 2 D, but maps can also be seen as sections of a 3 D terrain, or the 3D physical world. What we will discuss here is opening the door not just to triadic thinking [18], but embodied triadic thinking !, where we have to consult and revisit the General Model Theory and Systematic Neo-Pragmatism[15] (Herbert Stachowiak (1964-85) [46].

The concepts behind the General Model Theory are very central and pragmatic. You are not creating beside Nature's reality other realities with the same quality, but you generalize by creating another window of reality. Maybe an artificial one combining "levels of reality"[16]. You make alternative models of reality with a certain, clearly described fit, match or fidelity, AND with pragmatic intention, where you know what you can leave out at the model-picture level. We could say with Alfred Korzybski (IESC) in General Semantics (3005) and Gregory Bateson [19] in mind: "the map not the territory", but even more so, "a model is not the world".

Problem in modern society is that maps and models are used as abstract concepts, without referent and in good modern post-modern way without any possible concretion, without the purpose of sharing ways or orientations[17].

 

 

 

Whoever imagines mental barriers which actually do not exist

and then thinks them away, has understood the world.

As space is entrapped in geometry's network of lines,

thought is caught in its (own) inherent laws.

Maps make the world comprehensible to us;

we are still waiting for the star-maps of the spirit.

In the same way that ambling through fields

we risk getting lost, the spirit negotiates its terrain.

 

Friedrich Rueckert , Wisdom of Brahmins

(translated by C. Robinson)

 

 

 

3      A nine-dimensional (9-D) Model for generalized knowledge-organization and orientation? -- Can a combination of embodied model of reference frames (scaffoldings) called "Cognitive Panorama"  (3 x 3D)  or  (3Space/Time) help to share "Commons" or a "Global Covenant"?

We are speaking here about tangible, embodied models, models from a "high stand" and for a certain purpose. It is impossible to consider such constructions ultimate and the only possible construction or design. The purpose of our proposed Cognitive Panorama[18] [20]. The potential of creating small-scale constructs lies not only in making miniature models of physical objects or landscapes, but to use them, make them accessible, and ease communication about how "reality" is or might be in mindscapes. Here we can build, merge, morph, and augment realities, and use it for defining plateaus for "culture navigation" and combination of levels of reality (footnote 15)[19].

Such potentials and new application dimensions have been outlined, presented and combined in the design of the Cognitive Panorama since 1995 [20] and the Rubik's Cube for the Topogramm [21] design in 1987, and the Global Change[20] exhibition [22] in 1990. We have in this paper place for explaining the design again and would like to invite to study the literature and the entries in the IESC Encyclopedia as below.

Please see for further description the following entries in the Encyclopedia of  Systems and Cybernetics (IESC) [5]: 1) stands for general information, 2)  methodology or model, 3)  epistemology, ontology and semantics, 4) human sciences, and 5) for discipline oriented.

 

0479  COGNITIVE PANORAMA 1) - 2)   0484  COGNITIVE SPACES 1)   0999  ECO-CUBE/KNOW MAP 1) - 2) - 3)  

2001  MAP (Mental) 2) - 3)   2002  MAP TERRITORY RELATION 2) - 3)    2003  MAPPING 2)  

2104  METAPHORIC FRAMEWORK 1) - 2) - 4)    2105  METAPHORS (Classes of) 2)  

2228  MULTI-PERSPECTIVISM 1) - 2) - 4)    2463  PANORAMA OF UNDERSTANDING 1) - 2)   

2464  PANORAMA THINKING 1) - 2)

Figure 1:  The Cognitive Panorama, an example for embodied, tangible generalization for concrete [23], explorations and negotiation from “a distance”.  The Human as Communicator and Bridge-builder overlooks from a high stand the connection of spaces. The picture was drawn bay the late architect Otto Schärli, a contemporary and friend of Jean Gebser [23] and Hugo Kückelhaus[21]

Further description and the selection of dimensional can be also found in the first presentation with the Council of Europe 1995 [20] which invited new ideas and new spaces. With such constructions, it is possible to point at exchanges between fields, sectors, subjects, scales, any extension which was before designed or "mapped" in order to follow "flows" or exchanges with an orienting generalization in mind.

We propose the definition of such structures and superstructures, see proposal for CODATA-MIST 2005 [12] (Benking, Judge, Uhlir [24] to make clear what is generalized and how levels relate in the broader context.

Concepts, definitions, measurements
in dynamical systems such as ecosystems,
only make sense if they are independent
of a particular choice of co-ordinates
J. Mc Glade [2]

4   Knowledge Organization, Meta-Data, Multi-Linguality and Generalization

Keeping our stores of knowledge in order requires that we go beyond the post-modern stance of Cyberculture [25]. Where all is in a post-modern “fashion” without perspective, irreversible!!, chaotic and in vain, and we just think we need to try to "muddle-through". Beside the Global Embodied Covenant [7], some books and articles about a World-House[22] are recommended, something concrete and concise, where (especially young people) have worked on agreeing on various basics, like what is the fundament, the roof, the rooms, and levels. Such proposals and definitions also need to be done for the Grid or Matrix of terms in a multi-lingual, multi-cultural world with lots of specialized terminologies and specialized verbiage.

One way in this specific and critical application is beside the fashionable semantic nets application to generalize knowledge (of broader terms) in Switching Systems, see Ingetraut Dahlberg and her ICC[23].  This concept of Switching Systems [32] was conceived for broader terms which should help to relate to other terms from other fields from detailed, specialized repositories[24]. The moment we accept not only listings of terms or semantic webs showing relations between terms, but put "words into space" (Wolf [33] we can position meaning, placing a certain "topic" at a certain "topos" -  in an agreed-upon context - even at an extra level or layer the same meaning as used in different languages, jargon, or terminologies, and bridge representations [32],[34], and on various scale levels or granularities, See spaces-scapes for deep nested orders (CODATA 1994, Chambery [22]).

Very much en vogue over the last 10 years  is the development of meta-data standards and repositories, but basing on the above the question is not only needed to only collect, store and retrieve "data-about-data", which can be relatively simple as in the case of using controlled vocabularies, with typically just one terminology and language. The real challenge yet is "information-about-information" [35] [ UNEP - HEM G7 EEES ] which was laid out as one of the first international meta-data harmonization session (Benking 1990) and has later been followed by a to the specialized meta-data hype we have experienced in the 90ies - see summary as proposes for IEEE [36]. 

The challenges lie in the different approaches and concepts of different disciplines using the same terms, create their normative settings, but are not "compatible", typically do not even observe or relate to "other" fields. As an example might serve that Science and Technology Studies and Law and Society Studies often deal with the same subjects like "society", but from quite different angles, with different tangible and concrete positions and focus. Stepping back and defining common frames of references leads us back to the beginning of this article. At this point we can only propose to study the above mentioned international harmonization efforts, which were intended to identify compatible terms and concepts, and relate, possibly "roughly" translate or point at "other" incomparable terms and concepts. The work of the author starting in the late 80ies was and is concerned with such bridge-building. and defining conceptual "masterplans" [1] or superstructures[25].

 

The important thing about any word is how you understand it

Bublilius Syrus Serventiae, 43 BC

5   Summary and Outlook

As stated in the opening paragraph, we need agreed-upon order schemas. This has little to do with right or wrong, but how such agreements or covenants help to participate and negotiate meaning and come to an ethical dimension including a systematic neo-pragmatism. (Herbert Stachowiak 1965-84) Footnote 14. See also Hans Jonas’ Ethics with his new urge for responsibility with time- and space-horizon [37] and Panetics - an art of governance or science of reductions of the infliction of suffering [38].

The moment we accept that humans can be seen as "model making animals" we can share our models and positions and perspectives not just in the meso-scale environment around us, but anywhere where agree on "order" for the sake of sharing spaces and places, locations and overlaps intensities/qualities of fields. Assuming various "positions" in such virtual, or conceptual or artificial "realms" allows us to go beyond the dualistic right or wrong to the co-existence of perspectives, which is one instance of what we can see in Helmuth Plessner's (1928, 1980) [39] ex-"c"entric positionality[26], his concept of taking our viewpoint and moving it in order to see with other eyes, or including other strata or levels.

Like integration and segregation, reductionism or synoptism[27] (Kline 1996) [10], Holism by Jan C. Smuts (1926, 1938) [40] where we can with the concept of Specialization and Generalization go beyond dualistic concepts and arrive at a pragmatic, but also systemic, organic and responsible level of translation and truth and in order to augment the human intellect by bridging old and new [41] - BUT not just to, like in a citation Doppler, " to please not only the thinker, but support mankind at the same time", or with a citation from the architect Adolf Loos,m seeing palning and building as a social task and mission [42). A recent seminar at the UNIFYING ASPECTS OF CULTURE Conference 2004, focussed on the old and new capabilities needed to see a more coherent learning, communicating, storing, finding, sharing, understanding, and augmenting  (Benking et. al. 2004), TUAC [41].

Generalization is needed to come to new and old forms of  Synthesis, a quality much in demand, just like thinking "out-of-the-box" (IPA 2005) [43]. But it also alienates and is liable to be misused through over-claims and over-simplification, conclusions we draw erroneously. The danger is thinking that we know and can control when we do not, making us establish something what we think is "common". But these false "commons" make us avoid celebrating differences! and learn to live with them, with checks and balances, finding solutions, settling disputes or disagreement by taking in time, space, or other perspectives and invest in listening, dialogue[28]   [CODATA ISGS in this proceedings and finding alternative solutions with some more depth, background, and multi-modal flexibility [45].

"The organismic view is at the same time perspective -- that is, aware of its limitations,
not a nothing but philosophy believing to know and to have told everything, but tolerant of other philosophies and other experiences -- in arts, morals, religion -- which may mirror other facets of an unfathomable reality."
Ludwig von Bertalanffy

Acknowledgment and further sources/literature:

Without the endless work in all their professional lives (see references) and kind support of Charles François [5], Anthony Judge [45], and Herbert Stachowiak this paper, my summarizing work done more than more than 15 years, would not have been possible in such a broader, general, maybe generalized way. Other help, material, advise and an alphabetic extended list of references and literature will be available at this websites: http://benking.de/systems/codata/

References

1                    Benking, H., Kampffmeyer, U. (1992): "Bridges and a Masterplan for Islands of Data in a Labyrinth of Environmental and Economic Information", The Thirteenth International CODATA (Committee on Data for Science and Technology) Conference, Beijing, China, 19-22 October 1992. http://www.benking.de/bridge-masterplan.html

2.                  s.a. Ropohl 1975, see: http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/SPT/v4n1/LENK.html - http://www.inst.at/kulturen/2003/08paedagogik/sektion_benking_benking.htm

3          Benking, H; Kampffmeyer, U.: (1992) ACCESS AND ASSIMILATION - Pivotal Environmental Information Challenges - Linking, Archiving, and Exploiting Multi-Lingual and Multi-Scale Environmental Information Repositories, GeoJournal 26.3 1992  -   http://www.ceptualinstitute.com/genre/benking/aa/acc&assim.htm

4          Benking, H. (2001). Spacial versus spatial, Trilogy in Knowmap On-Line Magazine: http://www.newciv.org/cob/members/benking/knowmap.html  http://knowmap.org, s.a.: http://benking.de/Global-Change/spatial-spacial.html

5                    François, C. (2004) Encyclopaedia of System Sciences and Cybernetics, 2nd Edition, Saur, Munich, Encyclopaedia of System Sciences and Cybernetics, (2004), and Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential (1994-95). 4th edition, , 3 vols., ca. 3000 pages, UIA Brussels, KG Saur Verlag, München, New Providence, London, Paris. http://www.uia.org/uiapubs/pubency.htm plus CD-ROM versions, and François, C.: (2004) The need for an integrated systemic-cybernetic language for concepts and models in complex and vague subject areas: “fields” such as humanities, cultural-, anthropological- and environmental- studies, education,… and last not least: governance, IN: François, C, Benking, H.: "Systemics as a general integrated language of concepts and models", BBK - Berliner Bibliothekswissenschaftliches Kolloquium, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin http://benking.de/systems/encyclopedia/concepts-and-models.htm

6                    Benking, H.: (1994) on behalf of Brown, N. (director UNEP-RONA) Proposing a Conceptual Superstructure, Work-Report of a Vision to explore issue-scapes like virtual landscapes by making use of Surveyors' abilities and Views, FIG XX, Melbourne. A Rio Earth Summit 1992 review and outlook) http://www.ceptualinstitute.com/genre/benking/melbourne.htm - and Brown, N.J. (1994): Agenda 21: Blueprint for Global Environmental Sustainability, New Opportunities for Earth Systems Management, 7th Remote Sensing Conference, Melbourne, see also Brown, N.J. (1994): Agenda 21: Blueprint for Global Environmental Sustainability, New Opportunities for Earth Systems Management, 7th Remote Sensing Conference, Melbourne

7                    Benking, H. (2003) Ecological Integrity, Democracy, Governance, and Education: The NEED and a WORK-REPORT towards an embodied Covenant – Earth Charter Open Space, AND Global Ecological Integrity, Human Rights, and Human Responsibilities: Intersections Between International Law and Public Health, June – July 2003 Urbino, Italy http://benking.de/covenant/

8                    Overview & Orientation or Overclaims & Oversimplifications ?, Understanding and Sharing in a Cognitive Panorama, Culture of Peace, 9th International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics Baden-Baden, http://www.ceptualinstitute.com/genre/benking/overview.htm, http://benking.de/Culture_of_Peace.htm,  http://www.ceptualinstitute.com/genre/benking/overview.htm

9                    Dialog and Decison Culture, See also [45] and IFSR New Agora: http://www.open-forum.de/AGORA-Fuschl2002-lenser-benking.htm, and http://benking.de/play/IPA-Benking-TIME-CREDIT.htm, http://benking.de/dialog/

10                Kline, S. J.: The powers and limitations of reductionism and synoptism: Programme in Science, Technology and Society Report CF1, Stanford University, 1996

11        Benking, H. (1997). Weltbildkopositionen in anschaulichen kognitiven Räumen - ein notwendiger phylogenetischer Schritt, in: Emergenz und die Psychologie des Menschen, Konrad Lorenz Institut, publication pending, http://benking.de/worldview-compositions.html

12                Benking, H. (2005) Using Maps and Models, SuperSigns and SuperStructures,  proposed  for MIST 2005, Multimedia, Where do we go from here ?, International CODATA Symposium on Multimedia in Science and Technology, Berlin, September 19-20, 2005, http://benking.de/systems/codata/CODATA-MIST2005.htm

13                Wood, D. (1992): The Power of Maps, Guildford Press. see also: http://benking.de/systems/maps-supersigns/

14        Buzacott, J.A., Cantley, M.F.; Glogolev, VX; Tomlinson, R.C.(EDS.): Scale in production systems, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1982

15                Richardson, Jacques, George Marx and Esther Tóth,  Models of Reality - Shaping Thoughts and Action (in particular chapter "Models in Science Education"). UNESCO: Lomond Books, 1984

16                Peters, Arno: Peters Synchronoptische Weltgeschichte, Zeitatlas mit Indexband. 1970, 1999, 2000. ISBN 3-86150-370-0, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arno_Peters  -  see also footnote 12, http://www.hyperhistory.com/, http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peters_Synchronoptische_Weltgeschichte 

17        Veltman, K; Benking, H: Interfaces for Cultural Heritage - Cultural Dimensions of Interspaces, Advanced Visual Interfaces, AVI'98, L'Aquila, Italy, 1998: http://benking.de/avi.htm, and Veltman, K, Benking, H: Interfaces for Cultural Heritage - Cultural Dimensions of Interspaces, Advanced Visual Interfaces, AVI'98, L'Aquila, Italy, 1998: http://benking.de/avi.htm, and Veltman, K.: E-Culture Net: European Network of Centres of Excellence for Research and Education in Digital Culture, EVA, Moscow, 2002, http://www.evarussia.ru/eva2002/english/dok_631.html

18                Triadisches Denken, Michael Giesecke, Lehrstuhl für Vergleichende Literaturwissenschaft/Medien, Universität Erfurt, http://www.triadisches-denken.de/

19        Bateson, Gregory. (1972) Steps to an Ecology of Mind. New York: Dutton, and  Bateson, Gregory (1979) Mind and Nature, a Necessary Unity. New York: Dutton.

20        Benking, H.  (1996). A Metaparadigm or Sharable Framework - (Cognitive Panorama). Conceil de l’Europe: Nov. 1996 New Ideas in Science & Art – New Spaces for Culture and Society Conference  http://benking.de/meta-paradigm.htm

21                TOPOGRAMM  - Earth Survey and Spacial Information System, as coined by the author and jointly founded as a chain of methods by Heiko Schmidt von Braun and Heiner Benking, http://www.benking.de/Global-Change/topogramm.html

22                Benking, H. (1990) Rubik’s Cube of Ecology, as part of System Earth section of exhibition Global Change – Challenges to Science and politics - Beitrag Zauberwürfel und Ausstellungstafeln "System Erde" in "Die Welt im Wandel" Ausstellung, www.benking.de/Global-Change/, see also Footnote 19: Geo-Eco-Dynamics, 1989, and Benking, H., Grossmann, W.D.: A Conceptual Superstructure of Knowledge - Quality and Content in Organisation, Management and Awareness, IN: Data and Knowledge in a Changing Worlds,The Quest for a Healthier Environment, ICSU CODATA, 1994, Benking, H. Grossmann, W.D.:  http://benking.de/Global-Change/ICSU-CODATA-1994-Chambery.html

23                Gebser, J. (1949), Ursprung und Gegenwart, Schaffhausen, Gebser, J. (1986). The Ever-Present Origin. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, and: Benking, H., Stalinski, S.: Concreteness in Integral Worlds (2001) XXVII Annual Jean Gebser Conference, Worldly Expressions of the Integral, Ohio University, Athens, OH, http://benking.de/gebser2001.html, http://www.integraleweltsicht.de/Gebser_Texte/gebser_texte.html

24                http://www.integraleweltsicht.de/Gebser_Texte/U_G_Konkretion/body_u_g_konkretion.htm, s.a.: http://benking.de/systems_and_congruence.html

25        Surviving Cyberculture's impact - what can be done!?, Programming for People - From Cultural Rights to Cultural Responsibilities, WORLD TELEVISION FORUM 1997, http://benking.de/Global-Change/un-vision-television.html

26        Benking. H. (2004) Weltbilder oder Welthäuser. Methodische Voraussetzungen für die Entwicklung eines postmaterialistischen Naturbegriffs,, In: Roland Benedickter (Hrsg) Postmaterialismus, Band 4, Die Natur, Passagen Verlag, Ökonomie, Wien, http://benking.de/skizzen-2003.htm

27        Guilford, J. P., The Nature of Human Intelligence, New York: McGraw Hill, 1967. Structure of Intellect. Cf. the work of Kim Veltman and Heiner Benking on culture navigation, see: Veltman and http://benking.de/avi.htm, and Ulm [42].

28                Frank Baldus et.al Denkmodelle - Auf der Suche nach der Welt von morgen, ISBN 3 - 935694 - 01 – 6, http://www.denkmodelle.de/buch/buch_main.htm, http://www.naturranger.de/content/03/10_denkmodelle.shtml

29        Dahlberg, I. (1980): Gesellschaft für Klassifikation, Wissensstrukturen und Ordnungsmuster, INDEKS Verlag Frankfurt, Dahlberg, I. (1992): "Knowledge Organization and Terminology: Philosophical and Linguistic Bases", International Classification, Vol.19, No. 2, 1992, p. 65-71, Dahlberg, I. (1998): "Classification structure Principles: Investigations, Experiences, Conclusions", Fifth International Society for Knowledge Organization Conference, Lille

31                Benking, H.: (2002b) What do we need ? Where do we want to go ? - A Linguistic Turn ? , An Iconic Turn ? or a Pragmatic Spin ? - The construction and ethics of shared frames of references, IN: Ethics in Knowledge Representation and Organization, IN: Knowledge Representation and Organization for the 21stCentury: Integration of Knowledge across Boundaries„, The Seventh International ISKO Conference, Granada, Spain, 10-13 July 2002, http://benking.de/culture/granada2002/sld001.htm

32                CONCEPT AND CONTEXT MAPPING -  TOWARDS COMMON FRAMES OF REFERENCE , TKE '96 Terminology and Knowledge Engineering, INDEKS Verlag,  p. 35-47, Section 1: Terminology and Philosophy of Science,  http://www.ceptualinstitute.com/genre/benking/term/terminology.htm

33                Terminology and Knowledge Engineering, TKE ’99 and GTW, , Portals, Switching Systems and Reference Schemas, BRIDGING & SWITCHING REPRESENTATIONS IN ORDER SYSTEMS:  Culture in the Multimedia Information, Reflections about Multi-Media Repositories, Maps, Filters, Portals, Harmonization, and Switching System, http://benking.de/TKE-99.html

34                 Wolf, K.H. (1993): Australian Style, Vol.2, No.1, Dec 1993 p. 3-4  and http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/wolf96threedimensional.html or http://benking.de/culture/inst-2002/sld040.htm, s.a.  Benking, H.  (1997). Sharing and Changing Realities with Extra Degrees of Freedom of Movement, Computation for Metaphors, Analogy and Agents: An International Workshop, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu City, Japan, 6-10 April 1998, The Integrity Papers: http://www.ceptualinstitute.com/genre/benking/landscape.htm

35                Benking, H.: (1990) Information about Environmental Information: Introduction and Preliminary Design Considerations, Pre-Studies Discussion Paper for the 1. Expert Group Meeting, unpublished hand-out, UNEP-HEM, Febr.- July 1990. http://benking.de/Global-Change/info-about-info.html

36                proposed for: IEEE Meta-Data ´99 Meta-Data: Early steps and challenges for conceptual navigation, http://www.ceptualinstitute.com/genre/benking/ieee-metadata-99.htm

37                Benking, H., Schwitte  (1993): Interdisziplinäre Umweltwissenschaft, Jonas Prinzip Verantwortung, Wege zu einer integralen Umweltwissenschaft, Symposium in memoriam Hans Jonas http://benking.de/jonas-1993.html

38                Ralph G.H. Siu, Panetics http://www.newciv.org/ISSS_Primer/asem16rs.html, und http://benking.de/isp-speakers.html

39              Plessner, Helmuth; Dux, Günter (Hrsg.): Hellmuth Plessner, Gesammelte Schriften I: Frühe philosophische Schriften I. – 1980, http://on1.zkm.de/zkm/institute/mediathek/bibliographien/graduiertenkolleg1 and http://www.vernunftwelt.de/universe028.htm, http://www.ceptualinstitute.com/genre/benking/landscape.htm, s.a. [34].

40                Smuts, J.C.: (1926) Holism and Evolution, http://www.isss.org/primer/smuts.htm, Smuts, J.C.: (1938) Die Holistische Welt, Berlin, http://benking.de/history_scope-holism.html

41                Dialog and Learning, THE UNIFYING ASPECTS OF CULTURE - Trans Internet-Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften, Nr. 15, (2004)  8.3. Dialog und Lernen, TUAC Neues & altes, pragmatisches & gemeinsames kommunizieren, lernen, entscheiden und handeln, http://www.inst.at/trans/15Nr/08_3/benking_report15.htm, http://www.cafeweltgeist.org/tuac/dialog-learning/

42                Benking, H. (1996) Neue Horizonte und Orientierungen dank einer Architektur für Denkräume, In: Mensch, Masse, Medien, Interaktion oder Manipulation,  Internationales Forum für Gestaltung, Anabas Verlag, http://www.ifg-ulm.de/archiv/referenten.html, New Horizons and Orientation Thanks to a New Mental Architecture, MAN- MASS- MEDIA - Interaction and Manipulation, Hochschule für Gestatung, Ulm. The Foundation of the International Forum for Design, http://benking.de/IFGestaltung_Ulm.html#3d, s.a. http://benking.de/IFGestaltung_Ulm.html

43                Orienting Generalisations - or immersing and playing in extra realms, Play: Learning for Life - Education with Creativity and Diversity, International Play Association, 16th IPA World Conference IPA 2005, http://ipa2005.de/,  http://benking.de/play/IPA-Benking-PANORAMA.htm

44                Benking, H. (1997) Positions and Identities in Global Contexts - Awareness of Self and Others with me, you, we, they and "others" models, Club of Budapest Members Meeting UNESCO, Paris 1997, publication pending, film in progress

45                TOWARDS A NEW COVENANT: EMBRACING A DIALOGUE AND DECISION CULTURE TO ADDRESS THE CHALLENGES OF THE AGORAS OF THE 21ST CENTURY, IN: Constructing Agoras of the Global Village, World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution, Publisher: Taylor & Francis, Issue: Volume 60, Numbers 1-2 / January-March 2004, http://open-forum.de/Dialogue_and_DecisionCulture.html

46                Judge A.J.N. (1970). Visualization of the organizational network: the UIA as an international data bank. International Associations, 22, 5, pp 265-281, http://www.uia.org/uiadocs/vizorg.htm, Judge. A.J.N. (1986). Interrelating Incompatible Viewpoints for sustainable dialogue, vision, conference, policy, network, community and lifestyle, Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential, UIA, Brussels, Judge, A.J.N. (1995) Globalization Of Knowledge And Insight: Envisaging A Paradigm-Shifting Software Package. Union of International Associations, www.uia.org/uiadocs/globknow.htm, Judge, A.J.N. (1996) Strategic Correspondences: Computer-Aided Insight Scaffolding, Union of International Associations,  http://www.uia.org/uiadocs/corresp.htm

47                Stachowiak, H.:  (1965) Denken und Erkennen im kybernetischen Modell, Spriner Verlag, Stachowiak, H.: (1965) Gedanken zu einer allgemeinen Theorie der Modelle, Studium Generale 18.7, s. 432-463, Stachowiak, H.: (1972) Models, In: Scientific Thought, some underlying concepts, methods and procedures, New Babylon, Studies in the behavioral sciences 9, UNESCO, Mouton, Stachowiak, H.: (1973) Allgemeine Modelltheorie, Springer , Wien, Stachowiak, H.: (1980) Der Weg zum Systematischen Neopragmatismus und das Konzept der Allgemeinen Modelltheorie, In: Modelle und Modelldenken im Unterricht, Forschen und Lehren Bd. 4, Klinkhardt, Heilbrunn, Stachowiak, H. (1986-1995) PRAGMATIK, Handbuch Pragmatischen Denkens, Band I-V, Felix Meiner Verlag; Hamburg, http://coforum.de/index.php4?Herbert_Stachowiak

 

References in alpha-order - collection still in progress... 8/05

Apostel, L. et al.: (1974) World Views: from fragmentation to integration, VUB Press; Brussels, http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/CLEA/WorldviewsBook.html

Baldus F. et.al. (2003) Denkmodelle - Auf der Suche nach der Welt von morgen, NUNATAK, Wuppertal, ISBN 3- 935694 - 01 -6, www.denkmodelle.de

Bateson, Gregory. (1972) Steps to an Ecology of Mind. New York: Dutton

Bateson, Gregory. ( 1979) Mind and Nature, a Necessary Unity. New York: Dutton

Benking, H., Braun, H.von (1990) Geo-/Object-Coding for Local-Change Assessment, GeoJournal Vol. 2.20, Kluwers Academic Publishers, http://www.springerlink.com/content/h32782361n233576,      http://benking.de/Global-Change/topogramm.html

Benking, H.: (1988) Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Datenpräsentation durch Computergrafik im Umweltbereich, In: Jaeschke, A; Page, B. (ed.), Informatik Fachberichte Band 170, Informatik im Umweltschutz, 2. Symposium, Springer Verlag, Karlsruhe, http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/db/conf/umwelt/umwelt1987.html#Benking87, http://benking.de/GI/GI-datavisual-1987.html

Benking, H., Lessing, H. (1989): Large-Scale Bimonitoring for Renaturation, A New Geo-Biosphere data Acquisition, Analysis, Documentation, and Processing Concept, Geo-Öko-Dynamik, X 2/3, 277-290, , http://benking.de/Global-Change/Geoecodynamics-1988.html

Benking, H.: Airborne Close-Range Sensing Yields Analysis of Local Ecological Changes, Ecoinforma, Bayreuth 1989, published in Toxiciological and Environmental Chemistry, Vol. 26, 161-179, Gordon and Breach, 1990.

Benking, H. (1990) Rubik’s Cube of Ecology, as part of System Earth section of exhibition Global Change – Challenges to Science and politics - Beitrag Zauberwürfel und Ausstellungstafeln "System Erde" in "Die Welt im Wandel" Ausstellung, www.benking.de/Global-Change/

Benking, H.: (1990) Information about Environmental Information: Introduction and Preliminary Design Considerations, Pre-Studies Discussion Paper for the 1. Expert Group Meeting, unpublished hand-out, UNEP-HEM, Febr.- July 1990. http://benking.de/Global-Change/info-about-info.html

Benking, H.; Schmidt v. Braun, H., Geo-/Object-Coding for Local-Change Assessment - Planning, Execution, Accounting, and Research Demand Repeatability and Validity of Geotope/Biotope Information, GeoJournal 20.2 Febr. 1990, http://benking.de/Global-Change/global-change-1988.html

Benking, H, Kampffmeyer, U.: (1992) ACCESS AND ASSIMILATION - Pivotal Environmental Information Challenges - Linking, Archiving, and Exploiting Multi-Lingual and Multi-Scale Environmental Information Repositories, GeoJournal 26.3 1992   http://www.ceptualinstitute.com/genre/benking/aa/acc&assim.htm

Benking, H., Schwitte, J. Leitziel: Interdisziplinäre Umweltwissenschaft, in: Prinzip Verantwortung, Wege zu einer integralen Umweltwissenschaft, Symposium in memoriam Hans Jonas der Evangelischen Akademie Hofgeismar in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Fachbereich Evangelische Theologie der Philipps-Universität Marburg, http://benking.de/jonas-1993.html

Benking, H., Kampffmeyer, U. (1992): "Bridges and a Masterplan for Islands of Data in a Labyrinth of Environmental and Economic Information", The Thirteenth International CODATA (Committee on Data for Science and Technology) Conference, Beijing, China, 19-22 October 1992. www.benking.de/bridge-masterplan.html

Benking, H.: (1994) on behalf of Brown, N. (director UNEP-RONA) Proposing a Conceptual Superstructure, Work-Report of a Vision to explore issue-scapes like virtual landscapes by making use of Surveyors' abilities and Views, FIG XX, Melbourne. A Rio Earth Summit 1992 review and outlook) http://www.ceptualinstitute.com/genre/benking/melbourne.htm - and

            and  Brown, N.J. (1994): Agenda 21: Blueprint for Global Environmental Sustainability, New Opportunities for Earth Systems Management, 7th Remote Sensing Conference, Melbourne

-, (1996) CONCEPT and CONTEXT Mapping - Towards Common Frames of Reference, 48. FID, Graz und TKE '96 - Terminology and Knowledge Engineering, Association for Terminology and Knowledge Transfer, International Centre for Terminology (termnet), Wien, http://www.ceptualinstitute.com/genre/benking/term/terminology.htm

-, (1996). A Metaparadigm or Sharable Framework - (Cognitive Panorama). Conceil de l’Europe: Nov. 1996 New Ideas in Science & Art – New Spaces for Culture and Society Conference  http://benking.de/meta-paradigm.htm

-, (1996) Neue Horizonte und Orientierungen dank einer Architektur für Denkräume, In: Mensch, Masse, Medien, Interaktion oder Manipulation,  Internationales Forum für Gestaltung, Anabas Verlag

-, (1996). Embodying Synthetic Spacial Meanings and Situations: Challenges to Appresentation and Apprehension, Sustainable Peace in the World System, and the next Evolution of Human Consciousness, Fortiest Annual Meeting, ISSS, Budapest, September 17-20, 1996, http://benking.de/isss1996.html

-, (1997) Overview & Orientation or Overclaims & Oversimplifications?, Understanding and Sharing in a Cognitive Panorama InterSymp'97 – Culture of Peace Baden-Baden, http://www.ceptualinstitute.com/genre/benking/overview.htm

-, (1997) Positions and Identities in Global Contexts - Awareness of Self and Others with me, you, we, they and "others" models, Club of Budapest Members Meeting UNESCO, Paris 1997, publication pending

-, (1997). Weltbildkopositionen in anschaulichen kognitiven Räumen - ein notwendiger phylogenetischer Schritt , In: Emergenz und die Psychologie des Menschen, Konrad Lorenz Institut, publication pending, http://benking.de/worldview-compositions.html

-, (1997). Sharing and Changing Realities with Extra Degrees of Freedom of Movement, Computation for Metaphors, Analogy and Agents: An International Workshop, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu City, Japan, 6-10 April 1998, The Integrity Papers: http://www.ceptualinstitute.com/genre/benking/landscape.htm

-,  (1999) BRIDGING & SWITCHING REPRESENTATIONS IN ORDER SYSTEMS: Reflections about Multi-Media Repositories, Maps, Filters, Portals, Harmonization, and Switching System, TKE '99, - Terminology and Knowledge Engineering, Association for Terminology and Knowledge Transfer, International Centre for Terminology (termnet), Innsbruck http://benking.de/TKE-99.html

-, (2001). Spacial versus spatial, Knowmap On-Line Magazine: http://www.newciv.org/cob/members/benking/knowmap.html  http://knowmap.org, s.a.: http://benking.de/Global-Change/spatial-spacial.html

-, (2002) Raum und Virtualität: Potent(z)ial oder Leere? Die Bergwelt als Beispiel und Ursprung für den Zugang und die Auseinandersetzung mit "neuen" Welten, zum UN Jahr der Berge, Rasch und Röhrig, Wien, http://www.isnt.at/berge/virtualität/benking.htm

-, (2003) Ecological Integrity, Democracy, Governance, and Education: The NEED and a WORK-REPORT towards an embodied Covenant – Earth Charter Open Space, AND Global Ecological Integrity, Human Rights, and Human Responsibilities: Intersections Between International Law and Public Health, June – July 2003 Urbino, Italy http://benking.de/covenant/

-, (2004) Weltbilder oder Welthäuser. Methodische Voraussetzungen für die Entwicklung eines postmaterialistischen Naturbegriffs,, In: Roland Benedickter (Hrsg) Postmaterialismus, Band 4, Die Natur, Passagen Verlag, Ökonomie, Wien, im Internet unter http://benking.de/skizzen-2003.htm

Benking, et all, (2004) Dialog and Learning, Dialog und Lernen, Neues & altes, pragmatisches & gemeinsames kommunizieren, lernen, entscheiden und handeln, IN: The Unifying Aspects of Cultures | section 8.3.  TUAC, Vienna

Benking, H. (2005) (proposed) Using Maps and Models, SuperSigns and SuperStructures, MIST 2005, Multimedia, Where do we go from here ?, International CODATA Symposium on Multimedia in Science and Technology, Berlin, September 19-20, 2005, http://benking.de/systems/codata/

Benking,  H., Grossmann, W.-D. (1994): A Conceptual Superstructure of Knowledge -  Quality and Content in Organisation, Management and Awareness, In: Data and Knowledge in a Changing Worlds, The Quest for a Healthier Environment, Section: I7.C6 - proceeding page 151-152, ICSU-COADATA, Chambery, 18-22 September, 1994

Benking, H., Rose, J. (1998). A House of  Horizons and Perspectives - a cognitive deep openspace for positioning, comparing, merging and morphing our metaphors, models, maps and views, "The Compatibility of Social Systems", ISSS~ISIS, Atlanta, http://www.ceptualinstitute.com/uiu_plus/isss98/house-of-eyes.htm

Benking, H., Judge, A.J.N.: (1994) Design Considerations for Spatial Metaphors - Reflections on Viewpoint transportation systems, Invited workshop at on Spatial User Interface Metaphors for Hypermedia Systems, European Conference on Hypermedia Technology (acm- ECHT' 94), Edinburgh http://laetusinpraesens.org/docs/spatialm.php

Benking, H., Stalinski, S. (2001a) Concreteness in Integral Worlds. Worldly Expressions of the Integral. Jean Gebser Society Conference, Athens OH, Oct. 18-20, 2001 http://benking.de/gebser2001.html

Benking, H. (2005) (proposed) Using Maps and Models, SuperSigns and SuperStructures, MIST 2005, Multimedia, Where do we go from here ?, International CODATA Symposium on Multimedia in Science and Technology, Berlin, September 19-20, 2005

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Wessel, A.: (1975), Information Retrieval und Automatisierung, Luchterhand, Böblingen-Sindelfingen

Wilber, K. (ed.) Bohm, D., Capra, F., Ferguson, M., Pribam, K.H.,:( 1982), The Holographic Paradigm and other Paradoxes, Shambhala Publications, Boston

 

More Literature:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Benking

http://benking.de/zeiten-welten-wende.html

more recent 2004 – 2010:

http://benking.de/INST/TUAC/benking15.htm

 

 



[1]  A metaphor or map for example can be defined as an image schema, maybe even as a supersign [12].

[2]  R.E. Machol (1965) and Hans-Peter Dürr (1987) have beside Ropohl 1975 proposed independently such a concept of a "T-Intelligence", an ability humans should develop and cultivate. For Ropohl see http://benking.de/zetetic.html, and Ropohl 1975 http://www.inst.at/kulturen/2003/08paedagogik/sektion_benking_benking.htm, and Günter Ropohl (Hrsg.): Systemtechnik - Grundlagen und Anwendung. München: Hanser, 1975.

[3]  see again ICSU-CODATA 1992, Beijing [1], where the author and later Gerhard Budin explored this further in the field of multi-lingual meta-data and international terminology research.

[4] see the definition of spacial (3D) versus spatial  (2D) in Access and Assimilation Kluwers Academic Publishers, Benking [1991) [3]. and Spatial versus Spacial in the KnowMap Magazine, Benking 2001 [4]. http://benking.de/Global-Change/spatial-spacial.html

[5] See Benking, H.,  Kampffmeyer, U.: (1992) Harmonization of Environmental Meta-Information with a Thesaurus-Based Multi-Lingual Multi-Media Information System; International Space Year (ISY), Earth and Space Science Information Systems Conference (ESSIS), NASA-JPL, Pasadena, http://benking.de/Global-Change/Earth&Space-Sciences.htm

[6] Many „magnetic“ portals, but no common house“, see: http://benking.de/culture/inst-2002/sld006.htm

[7] The proposal of alternative "Common frames of references" is one central activity area of the author since 1988. See Benking 1994, Brown 1994 [6]  in outlining objectives and scopes of the Rio Earth Summit 1992, and were later described as a "Global Embodied Covenant", see (Benking 2004), Urbino) [7]. http://benking.de/covenant/

 

[8] See Overclaims and Oversimplifications, Culture of Peace, InterSymp etc, Baden Baden [9] where the author asked if Orientation and Overview might be able to help us to address the muddle or confusions, right in the sense of the here outlined "Orienting Generalizations" [8]. s.a.: Orienting Generalisations - or immersing and playing in extra realms, http://benking.de/play/IPA-Benking-PANORAMA.htm

[9] Schwarzkopf, F. (1995) The Metamorphosis of the Given : Toward an Ecology of Consciousness, Peter Lang Series:   Revisioning Philosophy 20, ISBN 0-8204-2585-0

[10] Jay Kline (1996) [10] for  the social, political, cultural and systems sciences and policy arena has approached such structuring and exchanges in his work on the Powers and Limitations of Reductionism and Synoptism. Also recommended is the Emergence Series of the Konrad-Lorenz-Institute, and here the presentation "Worldview Compositions - (Weltbild-Kompositionen) [11], where the author covers approaches in system sciences, like Bertalanffy, Gerard, Paul Weiss, ... in order to see how common grids and spheres can help to point at what we mean, and where and when processes take place, see [5].

[11]  see also the forthcoming ICSU CODATA MIST 2005 Berlin conference [12] which focuses on the future of media, and how different signs, also super-signs ! (Wood 1992) [13] might help bridging representations and link the different representations or formats.

[12] Dennis Wood (1992/3), p. 185-189

[13] An interesting new atlas done in cooperation with the Encyclopedia Britannica, and the Canadian Cultural Heritage Foundation,  http://www.hyperhistory.org, see also: http://www.cafeweltgeist.org/ewoc_slideshows/benking/sld027.htm

[16] Levels of reality http://benking.de/covenant-add-on/covenant-c/sld004.htm, see also to be aware of the challenges involved: Lippe, zur R.: (1997) Neue Betrachtung der Wirklichkeit - Wahnsystem Realität, Europäishe Verlagsanstalt, Hamburg

[17] see: zurechtfinden und zuvorkommen. This are very deep German words, which go much with their meaning far beyond "knowing" and "tolerance".

[18] (see also recent research on cognitive "structuring" and communication of issues in local/regional development and "new labor" in Gemany) using the Cognitive Panorama “construction” [20] to secure overview and concreteness: Schumacher, U., Schön, S., IN: Bonas, J., et.al. (2005), Gemeinschaftsnutzungsstrategien für eine nachhaltige lokale Entwicklung, oekom, München, August 2005. Munich. http://benking.de/new-work/Kognitives-panorama-benking-schumacher.htm

[19] See Veltman, Benking (1998) about culture navigation and Advances Visual Interfaces (AVI) [17] http://benking.de/avi.htm

[20] along with [21] and [3], all looking into "GEO - ECO - DYNAMICS", see the Journal and articel in GEOÖKODYNAMIK (1988) http://benking.de/Global-Change/Geoecodynamics-1988.html

[21] Hugo Kückelhaus stands for the integration of the senses, early childhood education, and aesthetics and has often presented his work by linking to J.W. Goethe. The figure of the Human is also used by the Kückelhaus Society. http://www.hugo-kuekelhaus.de/

[22] WORLD HOUSE [26], [27] see Mental Architectures in 3D, [28] Baldus, Denkmodelle, see also [20]. http://www.denkmodelle.de/themen/Inhalt/c_2.4.htm

[23] ICC Dahlberg, [29], [30]

[24] see Concept and Contex Mapping, [31] Benking 1996), see also [1],[3] and the combination of a “chain of spaces” or “artrium house” of three 3D spaces in Fig 1, or the Worldhouse [26]. http://benking.de/skizzen-2003.htm

[25] the following article available in the internet might provide some first impressions: Bridges and a Masterplan, Benking, Kampffmeyer [3], and Benking, H. Judge, AJN, Uhlir, P.: pre-concept and outline for: PROPOSIONG A CONCEPTUAL SUPERSTRUCTURE   NAS-NRC, Washington, http://benking.de/Global-Change/conceptual-superstructure-nas-1993.html, and a IEEE meta-data synopsis proposed for IEEE [36]

[26] Such a "outside of the center", extra position, see also (IPA 2005 [43]) has  nothing to do with being eccentric as it is understood in human psychology. It means in this context being out of the box, or middle, cultivation mental mobility and view-point transportation, leaving the position of just the "me" (ego), or the "we", and assume various positions, and see "with other eyes" from other clearly defined "logical" or situational places. See again Cognitive Panorama and me, we you, they and "others" models presented at UNESCO (Benking) 1997  [44].

[27] Kline, S. J. (1996) The powers and limitations of reductionism and synoptism: Programme in Science, Technology and Society Report CF1, Stanford University

[28] see beside the TUAC links above Benking 2004 [41] please see also World Futures on Dialogue and Decision Culture for a new Agora (Benking, Lenser, Stalinski 2004 [45] for this CODATA-ISGI workshop, where we will apply the Time Credit-Based Magic Round-Tables Dialogue method (see: http://benking.de/systems/codata/roundtables/ for intensive conversations at scientific, social, or political gatherings.